Country Location
Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa between longitude 290 and 410 East. Latitude 10 and 120 South.
Most Northerly point:  Bukoba 10 South Latitude
Most Southerly point: Mtalika 120 South latitude
Most Westerly point:  Kigoma 290 East of Greenwhich
Most easterly point:   Mtwara 410 East of Greenwhich

Tanzania has frontier to the following countries:
North : Kenya and Uganda
West: Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo
South: Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique
East: Indian Ocean
Geographical Features

Tanzania is the biggest of the East Africa countries (i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). Has a spectacular landscape of mainly three physiographic regions namely the Islands and the coastal plains to the east; the inland saucer-shaped plateau; and the highlands. The Great Rift Valley that runs from north east of Africa through central Tanzania is another landmark that adds to the scenic view of the country. The rift valley runs to south of Tanzania spliting at Lake Nyasa; one branch runs down beyond Lake Nyasa to Mozambique; and another branch to north-west alongside Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and western part of Uganda. The valley is dotted with unique lakes which includes Lakes Rukwa, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Kitangiri, Eyasi and Manyara. The uplands includes the famous Kipengere, Udzungwa, Matogoro, Livingstone, and the Fipa plateau forming the southern highlands. The Usambara, Pare, Meru, Kilimanjaro, the Ngorongoro Crater and the Oldonyo Lengai, all form the northern highlands. From th ese highlands and the central saucer plateau flow the drainage system to the Indian ocean, Atlantic ocean, Mediterranean sea and the inland drainage system.

Mountain Summits:(metres above sea level)
  • Mount Kilimanjaro: 5,895
  • Mount Meru: 4,566
  • Mount Rungwe: 2,960
  • Uluguru Mountains: 2,648
  • Rubeho Mountains: 2,576
  • Livingstone Mountains: 2,521
  • Mbizi Mountain: 2,418
  • Mahari Mountain: 2,373
  • Usambara Mountains: 2,300
Climate

Tanzania has a tropical type of climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 100c and 200c.during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures never falling lower than 200c. The hottest period spreads between November and February (250c - 310c) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (150c - 200c).

Two rainfall regimes exist over Tanzania. One is unimodal (December - April) and the other is bimodal (October -December and March - May). The former is experienced in southern, south-west, central and western parts of the country, and the later is found to the north and northern coast.

In the bimodal regime the March - May rains are referred to as the long rains or Masika, whereas the October - December rains are generally known as short rains or Vuli.
Land Coverage
  • Area: Total 945,000 km2
  • Mainland: 881,000km2
  • Zanzibar: 2,000 km2
  • Water: 62,000 km2
  • Forest and woodlands: 3.350 km2
Political system and Administration

Multi party democracy.
26 administrative regions (21 mainland and 5 Zanzibar), 130 administrative districts ( Zanzibar has 10 and Mainland has 120 administrative districts).

Population

Estimated at 33 million people (2002);
about 51% are women and about 46% are under age 15

Poverty
About 50% of the population are living below the poverty line.
Per Capital GNP:
Estimated at US $ 246 (2001) (US$1 = T.shs. 1051 in January 2005)
Per Capital GDP:
Estimated at US$ 251 (2001) (US$1 = T.shs. 1051 in January 2005)
Natural Resources

Minerals - gold, diamonds, tanzanite and various other gemstones, natural gas, iron ore, coal, spring water, phosphates, soda ash and salt.

Wildlife and Tourism - 12 National Parks, the Ngorongoro conservation Area, 13 Game reserves, 38 Game Controlled Areas: National Cultural Heritage Sites (about 120 sites)

Fisheries - three large lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa, the Indian Ocean coastline, rivers and wetlands. Potential yield of fish from natural waters is estimated to be 730,000 metric tons annually, present catch is 350,000 metric tons.

Forestry and Beekeeping Non-reserved forest-land (1,903.8 km2), forest/woodlands with national parks etc (200 km2), and Gazetted forest reserves (1,251.7 km2)
Currency

Official currency is the Tanzania shilling or 100cents which approximate US$ 0.00095.
Tanzania Shilling exchange rate US$ 1 = T.shs. 1051 (January 2005)

Capital City
With a population of almost 300,000 (1998) Dodoma which is located at a distance of 309 km west of Dar es Salaam, is the country's political capital. Dar es Salaam is the country's commercial capital. Other big urban centres include Arusha; Moshi, Tanga and Mwanza to the north of the country, Morogoro in the east; Mbeya and Iringa, to the west. Tabora and Shinyanga are also important economic hubs in central Tanzania. Mwanza and Dar es Salaam are two cities in Tanzania so far
National Holidays (2013)
DATE OCCASIONS
1 January New Year's Day
12 January Zanzibar Revolution Day
25 January Maulid Day
29 March Good Friday
1 April Easter Monday
7 April Karume Day
26 April Union Celebration
1 May Worker's Day
7 July Sabasaba (International Trade Fair)
8 August Nane Nane (Farmer's Day)
9 August Eid El Fitr
10 August Eid El Fitr
14 October Nyerere Day
16/17 October
Eid Al-Adha
9 December Independence Day
25 December Christmas Day
26 December Boxing Day
The National Flag
Ratio length to breadth
Three to two, e.g. 3ft. x 2ft., 6ft. x 4ft. 12ft. x 8ft
Description
Green - Golden - Black and Blue, having the black center stripe centred on diagonal rising from flag-mast to top edge of the fly, two smaller golden stripes dividing the upper triangle portion which is green and the lower triangle portion which is blue
Proportions of colours
Black center stripe, centred on diagonal of flag of 6ft. x 4ft., is 13/48 of fly and 13" wide. Golden stripes are each 1/16 of fly and 3" wide
B.S. No. 2660: 1955
Black: B.S. No. 9-103 - the People
Green: B.S. No. 0-010 - the Land
Blue: B.S. No. 0-012 - the Adjoining Sea
Golden: B.S. No. 0-002 - the Mineral wealth
The Tanzania National Anthem

KISWAHILI VERSION WIMBO WA TAIFA
1. Mungu Ibariki Afrika
Wabariki viongozi wake
Hekima, umoja na amani
Hizi ni ngao zetu
Afrika na watu wake.

CHORUS:
Ibariki, Afrika
Ibariki, Afrika
Tubaki, watoto wa Afrika

2. Mungu Ibariki Tanzania
Dumisha uhuru na umoja
Wake kwa waume na watoto
Mungu, Ibariki
Tanzania, na watu wake.

CHORUS:
Ibariki, Afrika
Ibariki, Afrika
Tubaki, watoto wa Afrika


NATIONAL ANTHEM
FREE ENGLISH TRANSLATION

1. God Bless Africa
Bless its leaders
Let Wisdom Unity and
Peace be the shield of
Africa and its people

CHORUS:
Bless Africa
Bless Africa
Bless the children of Africa.

2. God Bless Tanzania
Grant eternal Freedom and Unity
To its sons and daughters.
God Bless Tanzania and its People.

CHORUS:
Bless Africa
Bless Africa
Bless the children of Africa.

The Tanzania National Coat of Arms

The central feature of the Coat of Arms is a Warrior’s Shield which bears a Golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the United Republic flag of Green, Golden, Black and Blue; and a red portion under which are wavy bands of blue and white.

The Golden portion represents minerals in the United Republic; the red portion underneath the flag symbolizes the red soil of Africa; while the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal lines of the United Republic.

Superimposed features on the Shield are flames of a burning torch which signifies freedom, enlightment and knowledge; a spear signifying defence of freedom and crossed axe and hoe being tools that the people of the United Republic use in developing the country.

The Shield is set upon a representation of Mount Kilimanjaro. On each side of the Shield there is an elephant tusk supported by a man on the right and a woman on the left. At the feet of the man is a clove bush and at the feet of the woman is a cotton bush – thus indicating the theme of co-operation.

The United Republic motto – Uhuru na Umoja – is written in Kiswahili and it means ‘Freedom and Unity’.

The Uhuru Tourch
The Uhuru Torch symbolizes freedom and light. It was first lit on top of mount Kilimanjaro (5,890m) in 1961. Symbolically to Shine the country and across the borders to bring hope where there is despair, love where there is enemity and respect where there is hatred. Yearly there is the Uhuru Torch race, starting from different prominent places.

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